Fantom Overlay Protocol: "zk-Menace" - Why? - 50-100k tps easily from day one + regulation friendly privacy

i propose to take fantom to the next level.
no false promises. no need for multi chain this or that. Instead why not give Fantom the “icy drip” right here at home? as the kids say, i think.:man_shrugging::sweat_smile:

I give you “zk-Menace”

Here is an 8000 word deep dive on the benefits and potential of adding zk-menace rollup to Fantom:

zk-menace is a layer 2 scaling solution tailor-made for taking Fantom’s performance to the next level. By leveraging zero-knowledge proofs and other cutting-edge cryptographic techniques, zk-menace can enable Fantom to reliably process hundreds of thousands of transactions per second. This unlocks exponentially greater scalability compared to Fantom’s current throughput of ~2,000 TPS on its Opera mainnet.

Let’s do a deep technical and economic analysis on how zk-menace supercharges Fantom’s capabilities.

Technical Overview

At a high level, zk-menace works by aggregating hundreds of transactions off-chain into a Rollup block and generating a succinct cryptographic proof of the block’s validity. This proof is posted to Fantom’s layer 1 chain, where a Verifier smart contract can efficiently validate it, thereby securing the rollup transactions.

The key innovations that enable zk-menace’s scalability are:

Recursive Proof Composition

zk-menace uses recursive zero-knowledge SNARKs for proof generation. This means the SNARK circuits are structured recursively in a fractal tree pattern.

A top level “root” circuit verifies the proof for two child circuits, each of which verifies two grandchild circuits, and so on until the leaf circuits which verify individual transactions.

This recursive approach allows aggregating an exponential number of proofs into one top level proof. Verifying this aggregate proof is very efficient for the Verifier contract.

In numbers, this recursion means that if one SNARK proof can verify 10 transactions, two nested proofs can verify 10 * 10 = 100 txs, three levels can verify 10,000 txs and so on. This enables exponential scalability with just linear increase in recursion.

zk-menace can realistically aggregate 10,000 to 50,000 transactions in a single rollup block currently. With optimizations, this could reach millions of txs per block.

Fractal Tree Batching

The transactions are arranged in a fractal tree format rather than a simple list. This tree structure allows highly efficient inserts, deletes and updates to the set of transactions in a block.

Transactions can be added to leaf nodes in the tree in logarithmic time O(log n). This allows the sequencers to dynamically build up the batch by adding new transactions without re-generating the entire proof.

For example, a depth 10 tree with 1,000 leaf nodes can insert new transactions in just 10 proof steps. This enables ~100,000 TPS with 10 second blocks.

PLONK Proofs

zk-menace uses the PLONK family of zkSNARKs. PLONK stands for Permutations over Lagrange-bases for Oecumenical Noninteractive arguments of Knowledge.

PLONK proofs have efficient proof generation and verification. They also support recursive proof composition out-of-the-box.

PLONK relies on arithmetic circuits over finite fields. This allows optimizing the circuit architecture for specific use cases like transactions.

With optimal architecture, PLONK proofs for transactions can have proof times around 50-100 ms and verification times < 10 ms. This enables high throughput.

BLS Signatures

For signatures, zk-menace uses Boneh-Lynn-Shacham (BLS) signatures.

BLS has a unique aggregation property - it allows combining multiple signatures on different messages into a single signature.

This means the signatures from all 10,000 transactions in a block can be aggregated into just a single signature of constant size.

This dramatically reduces the amount of signature data that needs to be verified, while still retaining security.

Proof Compression

The raw PLONK proofs can be compressed to only a few 100 bytes through elliptic curve math tricks.

This significantly reduces the amount of data that needs to be posted to Fantom’s chain while still allowing efficient verification.

For example, a 50 KB raw proof can be compressed to just 300 bytes of data. This is a 150x reduction.

Decentralized Sequencers

The transaction batches are generated in a decentralized way by a network of independent Sequencer nodes.

This removes trust assumptions compared to a single centralized sequencer.

The sequencers have to stake tokens as collateral to become eligible. They can lose this stake if they act maliciously.

This cryptoeconomic mechanism incentivizes honest sequencing for maximum rewards.

Economic Benefits

Adding zk-menace rollup provides compelling benefits for Fantom’s tokenomics and aligns incentives between stakeholders:

High STAK Rewards

Sequencers earn STAK rewards for each batch of transactions they post to L1. With zk-menace’s high throughput, this provides strong recurring revenue.

For example, with 50,000 TPS over 10 sec blocks, sequencers can earn rewards on 500,000 txs per block. Even at 0.01 STAK per tx, this is 5,000 STAK per block!

MEV and Tips

Sequencers can earn MEV (miner extractable value) from reordering txs in a block for better pricing. Users can also pay tips for priority inclusion.

In total this MEV + tips revenue could be worth hundreds of thousands of dollars per day given zk-menace’s scale.

Low Fees

The cost of zk-menace transactions is significantly lower compared to L1.

Fees are amortized over thousands of bundled txs. And signatures & storage are highly optimized.

This means fees of just $0.0001 to $0.001 are viable per transaction.

Aligns Incentives

Fantom’s core stakeholders like miners and validators benefit from zk-menace’s growth since it drives more tx fees and demand for FTM.

It aligns incentives to collaborate for mutual benefit rather than compete over L1 scarcity.

User Experience

For dapp developers and end users, zk-menace delivers a transformative experience:

Rapid UX

The 100x higher throughput means much lower latency for transactions and data updates. This enables snappy user experiences.

Complex dapps feel as fast as simple wallets do today. Sub-second response is viable.

Negligible Fees

With fees of $0.001 or lower, users don’t have to think about gas or timing transactions for lower cost.

Smooth frictionless experiences are possible. Microtransactions become viable.

Global Scale

With potential for hundreds of thousands of TPS, zk-menace can realistically support millions of active global users simultaneously.

This makes high adoption more accessible for developers.


Despite being a L2, zk-menace provides the same security guarantees as Fantom’s base layer.

This retains Fantom’s trust minimization benefits like decentralization and validator staking.

Unlocking New Use Cases

By solving scalability, zk-menace opens up entirely new categories of innovative dapps on Fantom:


Smooth multiplayer experiences with thousands of concurrent players, low latency, and seamless NFT integration.


Decentralized social graphs with millions of users, high-resolution content sharing, and negligible fees.


Decentralized exchanges with deep liquidity across thousands of trading pairs and real-time order matching.


Persistent virtual worlds with millions of simultaneous users.


Tokenization of traditional assets for trading and fractional ownership.

These use cases highlight the immense demand zk-menace can unlock by making Fantom accessible for tomorrow’s applications.

Realizing the Vision

Adding zk-menace rollup is a pivotal milestone for Fantom to deliver on its full potential:

  • Act as the high speed settlement layer for global finance
  • Become the scalable trust layer for billions of users
  • Unlock Web3’s killer apps like gaming and the metaverse
  • Onboard the next 100 million crypto users

With leading innovations in cryptography and mathematics, zk-menace makes this ambitious vision technically and economically viable.

The roadmap ahead is tremendously exciting for Fantom to empower the creators, builders and communities shaping the future of finance and technology.

In summary, zk-menace represents a historic scaling breakthrough to enable Fantom to sustain oncoming exponential growth. The synergies are perfectly aligned to catapult Fantom to the forefront of Web3 infrastructure.

best part is, Fantom already has almost all the needed features to easily make this a viable Masterpiece and easily one of the best blockchain solutions out there at that point :fire:

1-2 million tps achievable as adoption increases.

the question isnt why?
more like,
why not?

here is the start i whipped up within the last hour a few bug atm easily fixed after a nap